Launch of New Research into Preventing Violent Extremism in Kenya

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

British High Commission Nairobi
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Representatives from the Kenyan Government joined members of the diplomatic community and civil society today, for the launch of new research into preventing violent extremism in Kenya. The launch was co-hosted by the National Counter Terrorism Centre, the British High Commission Nairobi, and the Embassy of the Netherlands, Nairobi.

The research, which was jointly funded by the British and Dutch Governments, seeks to further understanding of ‘at-risk’ communities in Kenya, and to support an evidence-based approach to policy and decision making. 

Researchers looked at the drivers of radicalisation, how radicalisation and recruitment work in practice, and which approaches to preventing and countering violent extremism may be most effective. Among the findings, it was clear that social networks are key; those with small or weak social networks are at risk of radicalisation. Personal crises, and structural challenges such as unemployment & poverty also play a big role. When considering how to effectively respond to the risk of radicalisation, the research highlighted the positive role informal grassroots interventions can play in influencing ‘at-risk’ individuals, and the role mothers play in encouraging their children to leave violent extremism.   The research includes recommendations for government, practitioners and development partners working to prevent violent extremism. 

Speaking during the launch, Ambassador Martin Kimani said: 

‘This launch delivers carefully researched findings and practice-relevant recommendations that help sharpen the focus of terrorism prevention work on individuals who are truly at risk of recruitment. I commend the researchers on this effort.’

British High Commissioner Nic Hailey said: 

‘The UK is committed to working with Kenya to respond to the shared threat of violent extremism. Research ensures we adopt an evidence-based approach to the design of our interventions, so that they really work, preventing people from being radicalised in the first place.’ 

Dutch Ambassador Frans Makken said:

‘Preventing and countering violent extremism is not just a matter of violence alone; it is also about a country’s reputation, investment climate and, most importantly, the future of its youngsters. This research helps to pinpoint causes of radicalization and recruitment and, hence, to support policies as well as concrete action on the ground to prevent and counter violent extremism.’

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of British High Commission Nairobi.
Source: Apo-Opa

Embassy of Japan gives UNICEF Ethiopia US$ 2.5 million to meet the water, sanitation, and hygiene needs of internally displaced populations

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
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The Embassy of Japan in Ethiopia has contributed US$ 2.5 million to UNICEF Ethiopia to help alleviate the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) needs of some 400,000-people displaced by droughts and ethnic conflicts.

UNICEF will use the funds over 12 months to provide lifesaving WASH services to internally displaced populations (IDPs) and host communities in all regions of Ethiopia, with priority given to SNNP, Oromia, and Somali regions. 

UNICEF will use the grant to procure emergency supplies such as jerry cans, soap, SaTo toilet pans and life-saving activities such water trucking and construction of sanitation facilities and sustainable water infrastructure to reduce dependency on water trucking.

“This contribution from Japan could not have come at a better time when we are seeking resources to support the large number of IDPs,” said UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia Gillian Mellsop. “Conditions in the IDP sites remain dire, with the brunt of suffering borne by children and women. We are grateful for this contribution, which will enable us to reach nearly half a million people. The needs, however, remain large while the funding, regrettably, is limited.”

As of October 2018, 2.9 million people, including 1.5 million children, had been displaced in Ethiopia.

Japan’s financial contribution will enable UNICEF to:

  • supply safe water to 332,800 IDPs and 83,200 members of host communities. Some 220,000 children are set to benefit; and
  • provide sanitation and hygiene services to 172,800 IDPs and 43,200 members of the host communities. This intervention will benefit 114,000 children.

UNICEF Ethiopia’s total humanitarian appeal for children for 2019 is pegged at US$ 124.1 million and aims to reach 3.7 million people, including two million children.

For more information, refer to the humanitarian appeal for children 2019

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
Source: Apo-Opa

Experts tease out kingpin role of digitization for Africa’s revenue harvest

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)
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Digitization has been variously described as pivotal in ramping-up revenue collection for financing Africa’s development.

This convergence of views characterized discussions at one of the plenary debates of the 38th meeting of the Committee of Experts of the ECA Conference of African Ministers of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, taking place in Marrakech, Morocco.

Convened to critically discuss and share experiences around the theme: “Fiscal policy, trade and the private sector in a digital era: a strategy for Africa,” the experts mainly evoked questions of speed and productivity, governance, timeliness and cybersecurity associated with digitizing fiscal regimes.

“Digitalization has the greatest potential to influence trade and productivity in Africa,” asserted Adam Elhiraika, Head of ECA’s Macroeconomics and Governance Division, who buttressed his points with examples from Rwanda and South Africa, using evidence from the soon-to-be-launched 2019 Economic Report on Africa.

While Rwanda has increased its tax collection by a commendable 6% of GDP thanks to digital strategies, South Africa has reduced the cost of revenue collection for both the State and taxpayers by 20% by going virtual with the process.

He opined that Africa should expect to see further success stories as more countries get converted to digital methods, which make it easier than ever before to access hitherto hard-to-tax domains such as agriculture, the informal sector and the digital economy itself.

The possibilities for increasing state revenues with the use of new technologies are real, explained the delegates from Guinea, who reported that 19 per cent of their compatriots already use mobile money solutions in their regular and business transactions.

However, their worry was the need for systems to protect users of technological platforms from hackers; hence the need for African countries to create regulatory and surveillance frameworks for cybersecurity.

According to Mr. Elbakkouri Aziz, heading the Moroccan team of experts at the session, these and other policies on the digital economy should be practical and citizen-centered.

His team said African countries should come together and form a common front to deal with the preoccupying issue of adequately taxing multinationals, including the use of digital strategies.

In pursuing revenue collection, “levying the informal sector is a huge challenge,” noted Mr. Makki Mohammed Abdelrahim Allan, Director General of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning of the Republic of Sudan.

“But we are rolling out a digital identification program, which takes into account tax and business information of citizens and we are hoping it will pay a great role in revenue collection,” he said.

At this juncture, the Senegalese offered some experience on revenue collection from the informal sector.

“Local councils are best placed to tap revenue from the informal sector, and should be drafted-in to do so” said Mr. Mayacine Camara, Mayor of Koungheul, in Senegal, whose council has made progress in that regard.

Ambassador Raj Busgeeth of Mauritius explained that his country had made much progress on digital tax collection, noting that performance has been enhanced by incentives to citizens who pay their tax online.

Digitalization would, however, only be optimal for resource mobilization when corruption is stamped out of the process, he argued, while making a case for people in position of power to be closely followed up to pay their taxes.

Corruption is a hindrance to tax revenue collection, he harped on, adding that “the big shots are probably those not paying taxes.”

The Egyptian team led by Ahmed Kamaly, Deputy Minister for Panning Affairs, seemed to have a fix for such a difficulty.

He said e-government services and tech centers have proved advantageous in Egypt by reducing transaction costs, enhancing investments and reducing the incidence of corruption related with revenue collection.

“But it’s a good idea to first ask the question on whether we do have active or passive fiscal policies in Africa’” he mooted, while submitting his belief that the continent didn’t seem to have active tax policies.

The conversation will continue for two more days to prepare grounds for incisive ministerial discussions.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA).
Source: Apo-Opa

On International Day of Forests, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announces new forestry education initiatives

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
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FAO marked the International Day of Forests today by announcing two new forestry education initiatives aimed at raising awareness among children and young people on the sustainable use and conservation of forests.

The two projects, funded by Germany with over $2 million, will address major challenges in forestry education and will help increase understanding of forests among the general public.

“Education is a critical step to safeguarding natural resources for future generations. It is essential for children to learn about forests at an early age,” said José Graziano da Silva, FAO's Director-General.

The theme of this year's International Day of Forests – “Forests and education – underscores the importance of education at all levels in achieving sustainable forest management.

“Forests help to keep air, soil, water and people healthy. And they play a vital role in addressing some of the greatest challenges we face such as tackling climate change and ending hunger,”  Graziano da Silva said.

Yet, warns FAO, despite these widely documented benefits, the integrity and sustainability of the world's forests are threatened by the cumulative effects of deforestation, land degradation and competition for alternative land uses. At the same time, a growing number of people needs access to greater amounts of nutritious food.

Perhaps the biggest challenge is that there is a lack of understanding of the many ways in which forests give back to global society, compounded by a growing disconnect, particularly in urban areas, between people and nature. FAO stresses that this issue needs to be challenged and reversed, and that it can be done through education.  

However, at present, education about forests is often inadequate and is not able to address emerging challenges. Fewer young people study forestry at university or college, and even fewer primary and secondary schools include forest education in their changing curriculum. When forest education is offered, it often fails to take into account forests' multi-functional role.

This is why FAO and partners are working to raise awareness about issues threatening our forests and strive to support the creation of comprehensive forestry education programmes and rural vocational schools that can skill professionals to deal with the complex challenges and opportunities that the forest sector will continue to face.

Educating children on sustainable forest use and conservation in Tanzania and the Philippines

One of the projects announced on the International Day of Forests aims to increase forest literacy and the need to manage forests sustainably among children aged 9-12 in Tanzania and the Philippines.

Funded by Germany with over $1 million, the three-year-project will develop forest education modules based on an interactive, experiential, forest-based learning approach, and will then make these materials available for further adaptation and use around the world via a dedicated website. The materials and lessons learnt will be also disseminated during key forestry events.  

In both countries, forests and woodlands are vital, especially for rural populations' food security, energy needs and livelihoods. They are also facing several challenges. 

Nearly half of the population in Tanzania and one third in the Philippines are under the age of 15. Educating primary school students on sustainable forest use and conservation is an obvious entry point for ensuring the integrity and sustainability of the two country's forests in the long run.

Enhancing global forestry education

With the support of Germany of over $1 million, FAO, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and the International Union of Forest Research Organization (IUFRO) are also joining forces to conduct, together with other partners within the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and beyond, an inventory of forest education to review the state of forest education across six regions and globally, identify forestry education challenges and gaps, and develop recommendations to address these. The initiative also aims to create an online platform to serve as a “one-stop-shop” for forest education.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Source: Apo-Opa

The 6th Edition of International Association of Sports Press (AIPS) Africa Congress will be held in Accra, Ghana

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

Sports Writers Association of Ghana (SWAG)
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The Sports Writers Association of Ghana (SWAG) will from April 2-6, host the 6th Edition of International Association of Sports Press (AIPS) Africa Congress, in Accra.

The Congress will hold at the Accra City Hotel and it is the first time ever that the 50-year old SWAG will host the the biggest gathering of Sports journalists in the continent.

Expected to be sandwiched with expert presentations and discussions on contemporary issues on sports media, administration and hosting of big sports events, the congress comes on the heels of a successful women centered seminar hosted by SWAG last year in partnership with AIPS AFRICA.

No fewer than 50 delegates from national sports journalists associations across the continent as well as executive committee and honorary members of both AIPS and AIPS AFRICA are billed to attend this annual assembly according to a statement from the secretariat. Also expected to participate fully in these three days are officials of the Local Organising Committee (LOC) of Africa Games 2019, Africa Rugby Union and the continental and regional football bodies.

The statement added that, the AIPS President Gianni Merlo, the President of the Association of National Olympic Committees in Africa (ANOCA) Mustapha Berraf, the Chairman of APO Group Nicolas Pompigne- Mognard, and the Power of Sports in AFRICA and Rivers State Governor Barrister Nyesom Wike are on cue to make their presence felt with unique messages.

Tested resource persons from Ghana and outside have been earmarked to talk and provide fresh insights on such topics as; “When Will Africa be ready to win the FIFA World Cup , How bold is Africa’s gold chase at Tokyo 2020? “Africa Games and the future”, The New Sports Journalism in Africa – finding the right mix.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of Sports Writers Association of Ghana (SWAG).
Source: Apo-Opa

Canon Saudi Arabia inaugurates its offices and business solutions showrooms in the Kingdom

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

Canon

Canon Saudi Arabia, a subsidiary of Canon Middle East (CME) (https://bit.ly/2CrQy2s), officially opens its first office and business solutions showroom in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The company was formed in partnership with Ali Zaid Al Quraishi & Brothers (AZAQ) in June 2018, and with two additional offices and showrooms in Jeddah and Khobar, will represent the largest regional B2B direct presence for Canon in the Middle East region.

The opening was attended by senior Canon executives including Mr. Stefano Zenti, Executive Vice President Developing Regions Business Group, Canon Europe and Mr. Anurag Agrawal, Managing Director, Canon Middle East and Canon Eurasia, as well as Mr. Faisal Al Quraishi, Chairman, AZAQ.

Canon believes that establishing a long-term presence in Saudi Arabia adds value to the economy by contributing to the development of a sophisticated digital infrastructure mandated by Vision 2030 to attract investors and enhance the competitiveness of the Saudi economy. Canon Saudi Arabia will further expand Canon’s business products and services across the Saudi market where there is a growing need for digital and other technology-based imaging services to support a more agile, robust, and efficient business environment.

“Canon Saudi Arabia is strategically positioned to support the nation’s ambitions of developing a competitive business environment in the region’s largest economy, which is expected to grow by 1.8 percent this year and by 2.1 percent in 2020. We have invested in the market to provide better wider coverage and deliver a holistic approach to business solutions. Whether these businesses are large corporations or small and medium enterprises, our innovative services and solutions are customisable to address the businesses’ requirements and position them as leaders in their respective industries. This drives business competency to allow for economic growth and competitiveness of Saudi-based businesses on a global scale,” said Anurag Agrawal, Managing Director Canon Middle East and Canon Eurasia.

In addition to supporting businesses achieve their objectives, Canon Saudi Arabia will be investing in its employees and enhancing their skills and capabilities through extensive learning and development programmes, with a focus on embracing and enhancing the talent of Saudi youth to support the country’s Saudisation drive. Through these initiatives, the company aims to grow to 300 employees by 2023.

Faisal Al Quraishi said: “The joint venture and partnership between CME and AZAQ comes as a result of a long business relationship between Canon and Al Quraishi Group that is 50 years in the making; and this development comes as natural progression of our successful business ties. AZAQ sees this partnership as a contribution to the country’s 2030 vision whereby Canon, a global brand, contributes to the Kingdom’s transformation through its innovative technologies and solutions. Furthermore, the partnership will be highly committed to train young Saudi nationals as well as advance technology in private and government sectors alike.”

Shadi Bakhour, B2B Business Unit Director Canon Middle East and General Manager, Canon Saudi Arabia, said: “According to recent reports, The Kingdom’s print market is estimated to pass the $7 billion mark in 2022, which is a testament to the growth opportunities available in this sector. Through our strategy of being closer to our customers in Saudi, we are able to meet this demand and offer services that address their challenges and creates opportunities for them. Our Managed Print Services for instance ensures efficiency, minimises downtime, and saves on costs so businesses can focus on their core offering.”

Through these showrooms, Canon will offer a complete portfolio of products along with innovative services and solutions for businesses across a wide variety of sectors. Some of the B2B solutions offered by Canon Saudi Arabia will include Managed Print services, Graphic arts solutions where customers can personalise their own environments through prints to continuous feed where we can help our customers efficiently manage high printing volumes for sectors such as education. Canon will also offer customers the opportunity to talk directly to their experts and get hands on experiences with the products and solutions.

Canon Saudi Arabia will provide businesses an efficient after-sales services and technical support in terms of speed of service delivery, availability of spare parts, technical support by highly skilled engineers, a fully outsourced logistics hub, multiple annual maintenance contract options, and other services to meet the requirements of businesses across the Kingdom.

Following Canon’s corporate philosophy of ‘Kyosei’ which means living and working together for the common good, Canon Saudi Arabia also aims to establish a strong relationship with the Saudi society through environment initiatives and community welfare programmes that give back and support various causes.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of Canon.

Media Contact/Enquiries:
Canon Middle East
Mai Youssef
Email: mai.youssef@canon-me.com

ASDA’A BCW
Ayman Hassan / Ibrahim AlMutawa
Phone: +966.11.400.4087
Email: Ayman.Hassan@bcw-global.com
           Ibrahim.AlMutawa@bcw-global.com

About Canon Saudi Arabia:
Canon Saudi Arabia (https://bit.ly/2CrQy2s) is Canon Middle East’s B2B direct operation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and reports to Canon Middle East FZ LLC (CME), a subsidiary of Canon Europe and the regional headquarters for Canon in the Middle East, based in Dubai, UAE.

Canon has been represented in the Middle East for over 50 years through distributors and partners that have successfully built a solid customer base and significant market share in the region.

Canon Saudi Arabia marks the company’s third direct operational presence in the region. Launched in June 2018, Canon Saudi Arabia is operating from Riyadh, with two branches in Jeddah and Khobar, aimed to grow and strengthen Canon’s in-country presence and demonstrate its commitment to operating closer to its customers and meet their demands in a rapidly evolving Saudi market. 

Canon Saudi Arabia is providing Saudi customers the opportunity to receive direct advice on products and services from Canon professionals. The variety of solutions available to the market spans from Canon’s Business offerings including, products, solutions and services for both the office and professional print environments such as Managed print services, Graphic arts solutions where customers can personalise their own environments by printing their own wall papers, cushions, and more, to continuous feed where we can help our customers efficiently manage high printing volumes for sectors such as education and after-sales services. Canon Saudi Arabia, supports businesses differentiate themselves, develop to meet the current market demands and become leaders in their respective industries.

In addition to supporting business achieve their goals, Canon Saudi Arabia is enhancing skills and professionalism of Saudi nationals through extensive learning and development programmes, embrace and grow Saudi youth talent, and empowering women to further support the country’s Saudisation programme.

Canon is a world-leading innovator and provider of imaging solutions for home and businesses, providing individual products and complete networked technology solutions for information input, management and output.

Canon’s corporate philosophy is Kyosei – ‘living and working together for the common good’ – which aims to give back to the communities in which it operates.

Further information about Canon Saudi Arabia is available Here (https://bit.ly/2CrQy2s)

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Canon
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Source: Apo-Opa

Lions de Fer Rugby Football Club (RFC) out to claim Rugby League Title

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

Rwanda Rugby Federation (RRF)

Rwanda Rugby Federation (RRF) (www.RwandaRugby.com) Lions de Fer out claim rugby league title after winning their opening match against Kigali Sharks last year’s league winner 14-12.

The Lions de Fer ended on the last place in last year’s regular season.

In an interview with this paper, Lions de Fer captain Umuhire victorein said they are prepared and ready for this year league. He explained that, “All our players are fit, and some of our players who joined our club have experience because they play for Rwanda Rugby National team Silverback like Hajali Jean Paul,Gasore Shariff who are good centers in backline and forward like Iradukunda Emmanuelle, and Kamanzi Didier  (the National Team Captain).

Kigali Sharks RFC captain Hakizimana jean de Dieu (kabodi) urged that although they lost their first match of the league he congratulates his teammate for teamwork and commitment they showed against Lions de Fer and new coach Habumugisha Moise for his tactic of playing of strong pack and quick on defense.

Meanwhile,in Kigali thousand hills won 22-0 Remera Buffalloes while  in the South League Resilience RFC clashed Puma kamonyi 57-5 and Muhanga Thunders RFF won 31-17 against UR Grizzlies university side.

The Rwanda Rugby National League will continue on Saturday 23rd, March 2019, Thousand hills vs Kigali sharks, Remera Buffaloes vs Lions de fer RFC, Resilience RFC vs UR Grizzlies RFC, Muhanga thunders RFC Vs Puma Kamonyi RFC.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of Rwanda Rugby Federation (RRF).

Media Contact:
Rugby@APO-opa.org

About Rwanda Rugby:
The Rwanda Rugby Federation (RRF) (www.RwandaRugby.com) is responsible for all aspects of rugby in Rwanda from school level to the international Silverbacks. Our aim is to encourage the development of rugby in Rwanda and increase participation at all ages and both genders.

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Rwanda Rugby Federation (RRF)
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Source: Apo-Opa

Rugby Community to assist towards Cyclone Idai relief

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

Zimbabwe Rugby Union (ZRU)
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ZRU to donate 5% of gate revenue towards relief; Kwese Sevens venue converted into donation collection point

The Zimbabwe Rugby Union (ZRU) is joining the nation in charitable work to support victims of Cyclone Idai that largely affected the eastern province of Manicaland.

Cyclone Idai which has been recorded as one of the worst Tropical Cyclones to have affected the Southern Hemisphere affecting more than 2,6 million people in Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi.

As the ZRU we have partnered with Econet Wireless in a joint effort to reach out to as many affected people as possible and will donate 5% of our gate takings from the Kwese Sevens Tournament which takes place on Saturday March 23 and Sunday March 24 of March at the Machinery Exchange Stadium at Harare Sports Club.

We are joining every Zimbabwean in the collective humanitarian efforts across all platforms to help those affected by the cyclone.

During the tournament on both match days, the Machinery Exchange Stadium will be collection point for any material donations.

We appeal to everyone to join the rugby community that has through clubs and players already started various initiatives to help those affected, to bring anything that will assist those in need.

Advance tickets for the Kwese Sevens Tournament can be purchased online on: https://bit.ly/2ukMzjS

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of Zimbabwe Rugby Union (ZRU).

Media Contact:
Rugby@APO-opa.org

Source: Apo-Opa

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Deploys Disaster Assistance Team to Mozambique in Response to Cyclone Idai

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
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By Acting USAID Spokesperson Tom Babington

Today, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is activating a Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) to Mozambique to lead the U.S. Government's response to Cyclone Idai, which has caused catastrophic flooding, killed hundreds of people, and affected hundreds of thousands of others in Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi.

To date, USAID has mobilized $700,000 in total assistance to support emergency water, sanitation, hygiene, and shelter needs in Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi caused by torrential rain and flooding in early March, followed by Cyclone Idai. Of this, $200,000 is for relief efforts in Mozambique in response to the damage caused by Cyclone Idai, and $500,000 was provided to Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi in response to the flooding earlier in the month.

The USAID DART, an elite team of US disaster experts, will assess damage, identify humanitarian needs, and work closely with local authorities and humanitarian organizations on the ground to provide critical assistance to people affected by the cyclone. The storm, which has destroyed homes, livelihoods, and public infrastructure, follows a week of heavy rains and flooding across Southeast Africa that had already displaced tens of thousands of people.

As the world's largest donor of humanitarian assistance, the United States remains committed to helping people affected by this devastating cyclone. Our thoughts are with the people of Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).
Source: Apo-Opa

Applications to 2019 Reham Al-Farra Memorial Journalism Fellowship now open (deadline 15 April)

21.March.2019 · Posted in APO-OPA

United Nations Information Centre in Dar es Salaam
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The Department of Global Communications (DGC) is accepting applications for the 2019 Reham Al-Farra (RAF) Memorial Journalism Fellowship, which will be held at UN Headquarters in New York from 15 September to 5 October 2019.

The Fellowship will bring a select group of young journalists from around the world to United Nations Headquarters to cover the General Assembly, interview senior officials, and attend special briefings and workshops.

The Fellowship is open to full-time journalists between the ages of 22 and 35 from countries with developing and transitioning economies. A full list of eligible countries is available at https://outreach.un.org/raf/eligibility.

The Fellowship covers the cost of roundtrip air travel to New York and provides a daily subsistence allowance.

Applications must be submitted online at https://outreach.un.org/raf/apply. The application deadline is 15 April 2019.

Distributed by APO Group on behalf of United Nations Information Centre in Dar es Salaam.
Source: Apo-Opa